Xem thêm

The Art and Science of Interior Design: Creating Beautiful and Functional Spaces

CEO Khai Intela
Photo by saigonintela.vn Interior design is an art and science that involves understanding human behavior to create functional and aesthetically pleasing spaces within a building. It goes beyond mere decoration and involves careful planning, designing,...

interior design Photo by saigonintela.vn

Interior design is an art and science that involves understanding human behavior to create functional and aesthetically pleasing spaces within a building. It goes beyond mere decoration and involves careful planning, designing, and utilization of space. Interior designers work closely with architects, engineers, and contractors to develop safe, functional, attractive, and user-centered design solutions.

The History and Present of Interior Design

In the past, interior design was an instinctive part of the construction process. Over time, it evolved as a result of societal development and the advancement of architecture. Efforts to efficiently use space and the growth of modern interior design have contributed to the development of this profession. Interior design is a distinct and separate profession from the role of "interior decorator," a term commonly used in the United States, but less prevalent in the United Kingdom, where interior design is not yet formally recognized as a profession.

Ancient India provides evidence of architects playing a role as interior designers. This can be seen from references to Vishwakarma, one of the gods in Indian mythology. In 17th-century India, architects also acted as interior designers. The sculptures depicting ancient manuscripts and events were placed inside palaces, while in the Middle Ages, wall paintings also became a common feature of palace-like villas in India, commonly known as havelis. While most traditional houses have been destroyed to make way for modern buildings, there are still about 2,000 havelis (a townhouse, mansion) remaining.

In ancient Egypt, "soul houses" (or models of houses) were placed in tombs to store food offerings. From this, details of the interior design of different houses in different Egyptian dynasties can be seen, such as changes in ventilation systems, corridors, columns, porches, windows, and doors.

Interior wall painting has existed for at least 5,000 years, with examples found as far north as Ness of Brodgar, as well as sites with interior design samples, as seen in the settlement of Skara Brae. The Greeks and later the Romans added decorative mosaic floors and patterned interiors. In ancient Roman bathhouses, shops, civil offices, castra (forts), and temples, interior murals were also a common feature in designs dating back to the first century BC. With specialized craftsmanship to produce decorative interiors and furniture according to formulas, within buildings defined by Roman architects, such as Vitruvius: De architectura, libri decem (Ten Books on Architecture).

Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, as well as the early 19th century, interior decoration was the responsibility of the homemaker or a skilled cabinetmaker or craftsman hired to advise on artistic style for interior spaces. Architects also hired craftsmen or artisans to complete the interior design for their projects.

Professional Interior Design and Commercial Interior Design

In the late 19th century, interior design services expanded significantly as the middle class in developing industrial countries became more numerous and prosperous, and they began to desire interior furnishings to enhance their new status. Large interior furnishing companies expanded into interior design and overall management, offering a wide variety of furniture styles. This business model grew swiftly from the mid-century to 1914, when this role was gradually overshadowed by independent designers, often amateurs. This paved the way for the emergence of the professional interior design industry in the mid-20th century.

interior design Photo by saigonintela.vn

In the 1950s and 1960s, interior decorators began to expand their business. They expanded the scale of business and regarded it as an art, often advertising their interior products to the public. To meet the increasing demand for interior decoration projects such as offices, hotels, and public buildings, these companies grew larger and more sophisticated, hiring architects, carpenters, plasterers, fabric designers, artists, and interior designers, as well as engineers and technicians to complete the work. These companies also began publishing and distributing catalogs with printed versions of different luxurious styles to attract the attention of expanding middle-class customers.

As the number and size of grocery stores increased, the retail space inside the stores was decorated in different styles to serve as a model for customers. An especially effective advertising tool was the setting up of showrooms at national and international exhibitions in display rooms for the public to see. Some pioneering companies in this field were Waring & Gillow, James Shoolbred, Mintons, and Holland & Sons. These traditional high-quality furniture manufacturing companies began to play an important role as advisors for middle-class customers who were unsure about their aesthetic tastes and styles. They began to sign contracts to design and decorate the interiors of many important buildings in England.

This type of business emerged in the United States after the Civil War. Herter Brothers, founded by two German immigrant brothers, started as a decorative fabric depot and became one of the first companies specialized in furniture manufacturing and interior decoration. With a design office and separate woodwork and furniture workshops, Herter Brothers were ready to perform all aspects of interior decoration including wall panels and heating installation, wall and ceiling decoration, patterned mosaic floors, carpets, and curtains.

Another influential figure in popularizing theories of interior design for the middle class was architect Owen Jones, one of the most influential design theorists of the 19th century. His first project was the most important - in 1851, he was responsible not only for the decoration of Joseph Paxton's monumental Crystal Palace Square for the Great Exhibition of Culture and Industry, but also for arranging the interior displays. He chose a controversial color scheme with red, gold, and blue for the iron and steel products inside, and although initially met with opposition from the press, it was ultimately unveiled by Queen Victoria with great praise. His most important book was The Grammar of Ornament (1856), in which Jones laid out 37 main principles of design and interior decoration.

Jones was hired by several leading interior design companies of his time; in the 1860s, he worked in collaboration with the Jackson & Graham company in London to produce furniture and other fixtures for famous clients, including art collector Alfred Morrison and Ismail Pasha, the Khedive of Egypt.

In 1882, Kelly's Directory of the London Post Office listed 80 interior decorators. Some of the most famous companies in this period were Crace, Waring & Gillowm, and Holland & Sons, while renowned decorators worked for these companies including Thomas Edward Collcutt, Edward William Godwin, Charles Barry, Gottfried Semper, and George Edmund Street.

Transition to Professional Interior Design

interior design Photo by saigonintela.vn

By the late 20th century, interior design became more prominent. From the 1950s onwards, spending on homes increased. Interior design courses were established, requiring textbooks and reference materials. Historical books about interior designers and separate companies with decorative art experts were published. Organizations to manage education, standards, qualifications, and practice were established for this profession.

Before, interior design was often seen as a subsidiary role to architecture. It also had many links to other design fields, including the work of architects, industrial designers, engineers, contractors, craftsmen, etc. For these reasons, the regulation and certification of interior design standards are often integrated into other related professional organizations. Organizations such as the Royal Institute of Architects, established in the UK in 1986, and the American Institute of Interior Designers, established in 1938, manage various design fields.

In many countries, there are now numerous undergraduate programs, including interior architecture, lasting three or four years to complete.

A formalized form of education, especially a program recognized or developed with a professional organization of interior designers, can provide training that meets a minimum standard of excellence and therefore offers students a high-quality education. There are also postgraduate and doctoral programs for those who want additional training in specific interior design specialties (such as for the elderly or healthcare) or for those who want to teach interior design at the university level.

Famous Interior Designers

There have been many famous interior designers throughout history. Some prominent names include Sybil Colefax, Dorothy Draper, Pierre François Léonard Fontaine, Syrie Maugham, Elsie de Wolfe, and Arthur Stannard Vernay.

Conclusion

Interior design is a creative profession, constantly evolving and often misunderstood by the public. It is not always the pursuit of art and can draw on research from various fields to provide a well-rounded understanding of how the environment affects people.

Interior design encompasses various types, including residential, commercial, cafes, fashion stores, offices, retail stores, healthcare, and hotels, among others.

To become a professional interior designer, there are many paths, but all involve getting trained. Working with a successful professional interior designer is an informal method of education and was previously the most common educational method. However, in many states, this alone is not sufficient to obtain a license as a professional interior designer. Formalized training through an organization such as a university, art school, or design school is a more formal way to practice professionally.

Interior designers need to know how to define space and visually present it. They must be knowledgeable about materials and products used to create space, the combination of colors, brightness, material, and other elements, and ultimately, how they interact to create a harmonious space. Additionally, interior designers must be knowledgeable about structure requirements in projects, health issues, safety issues, building codes, and other technical aspects.

There are many famous interior designers, and education plays a crucial role in becoming one. Interior design is a fascinating field that combines art, science, and practicality to create beautiful and functional spaces for people to live, work, and enjoy.


This article was written based on the content provided while retaining the core message and enriching it with novel insights to make it unique and engaging.

1